As a nutritionist, I understand how overwhelming it can be to make sense of the amount of information, about food and health. It’s not surprising that many people feel frustrated with this subject – nutrition is filled with terminology and ambiguous language which often leads to confusion. The purpose of this weight loss glossary is to better inform you on your journey to becoming a healthier you.
My goal is not to offer guidance on eating habits but also to assist you in navigating through the unfamiliar territory associated with these topics so you can confidently make well-informed decisions, about your diet and lifestyle. Let’s begin by exploring some principles. The medical term for weight is detailed.
There are so countless fad diets on the market that use a play on words for weight loss. This guide will help you stay informed.
Table of Contents
Maintaining a healthy weight is greatly influenced by nutrition. However, the abundance of information available, on nutrition, diet, and weight loss can be overwhelming to grasp.
To simplify things for you we have compiled a glossary of diet-related terms. Whether you are new to this realm or an experienced enthusiast, in the field of weight loss our goal is to enhance your comprehension of nutrition jargon and empower you to take charge of your well-being.
Macros are nutrients that your body requires for energy, including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Keeping track of macros involves monitoring the quantities of these nutrients you consume to ensure that you meet your body’s needs. This approach can be beneficial, for weight loss as it allows you to maintain a calorie range while also providing fuel for your body.
The three main macronutrients are carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Carbohydrates provide energy, protein aids in tissue building and repair and fat serves functions such, as insulation. To maintain a healthy diet, it is important to ensure that you are getting an amount of these nutrients from the meals you consume.
Micronutrients refer to the nutrients found in food that are required in quantities but play a vital role in maintaining a healthy diet. These encompass. Minerals are necessary for the functioning of both the body and mind. To ensure you obtain a number of micronutrients it is important to incorporate a range of fruits and vegetables into your diet.
Meal prep, which is commonly referred to as meal preparation involves getting your meals ready, in advance to make decision making easier and increase convenience. This can include cooking and dividing meals for the week or preparing vegetables and marinating meat ahead of time. By planning your meals, you can avoid the temptation of food or snacks. Have a consistent supply of nourishing and wholesome options.
Keeping portion sizes in check is crucial, for maintaining a weight. Even nutritious foods can contribute to weight gain if consumed excessively. Learning to eat portion sizes will help you manage your calorie intake and support weight loss goals. You can start by using a scale or measuring cups to accurately measure your food portions and ensure you’re eating the amount.
Mindful eating involves paying attention to your body’s hunger signals and eating with intention and awareness. Engage your senses while eating, savoring the flavors and textures of your food. Avoid mealtime distractions like television or smartphones and focus on the food in front of you. Eating mindfully can also help you avoid overeating and make healthier food choices.
Clean eating refers to an eating style that emphasizes foods while reducing additives and preservatives. It involves incorporating fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains into your diet while limiting processed foods, refined sugars, and unhealthy fats.
Adopting an approach, to eating can have its advantages especially when it comes to shedding pounds. By prioritizing foods that’re rich in nutrients you can feel satisfied and content throughout your weight loss journey.
One method that you could consider is fasting, which involves limiting your food intake to time periods during the day. For example, you might choose to eat within an 8-hour window and fast for the remaining 16 hours. This approach has shown effectiveness in managing calorie intake and promoting burning ultimately contributing to weight loss.
However, it is important to keep in mind that intermittent fasting may not be suitable for everyone. It’s always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before embarking on any fasting program.
Cheat days or cheat meals allow you to enjoy foods that deviate from your weight loss goals, on a designated meal or day. While some individuals find planned cheat days in maintaining their eating routine it’s crucial to approach them with caution and moderation.
Indulging excessively on cheat days can reverse the progress you’ve made and make it more difficult to get back, on track. It’s important to understand that there isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to weight loss methods. By familiarizing yourself with these terms related to dieting you will be better equipped to make decisions about your nutrition.
Just remember that losing weight is a process that requires patience, self-compassion, and a willingness to learn. By incorporating these words into your discussions about weight loss you’ll be moving closer to achieving your health and wellness goals.
Weight loss glossary for nutrition, diet, and weight loss.
It is crucial for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. By becoming knowledgeable about the language of nutrition you can make informed choices regarding your habits and overall lifestyle.
Always prioritize a diet with portion sizes and practice mindful eating. With dedication, perseverance, and guidance from a nutritionist, you can reach your weight loss objectives while promoting long-term health.
I have had the privilege of working with individuals who have sought my guidance in their weight loss journeys. While there isn’t a solution one crucial piece of advice stands out; consistency. It may not sound glamorous or exciting.
Maintaining an approach, to making healthier choices and sticking to a routine is the cornerstone of achieving long-term success in weight loss. Rather than succumbing to diets or extreme exercise regimens, it’s important to discover a routine that suits your unique needs and preferences.
By adjusting your habits and wholeheartedly committing to them you will not only shed those unwanted pounds but also cultivate a healthier relationship, with both food and physical activity. Believe me when I say that when it comes to losing weight being consistent truly holds the key.
Weight Loss Medical Terminology
Abdominal fat refers to the tissue located centrally between the chest and pelvis. This type of distribution poses health risks.
Absolute risk is the calculated probability of an event, within a population being studied as opposed to relative risk.
Aerobic exercise encompasses activities like walking, jogging, running, and dancing. Engaging in aerobic training enhances the efficiency of energy-producing systems. Improves cardiorespiratory endurance.
Age-adjusted measures are procedures used to compare rates of morbidity or mortality in populations while accounting for variations in age. Age is a variable when assessing the risk of morbidity and mortality.
Anorexiant refers to a substance or process that causes anorexia (loss of appetite).
Anthropometric measurements involve assessing human body height, weight and proportions including measurements. These measurements are used to study and compare proportions under abnormal conditions.
Atherogenic refers to substances or factors that contribute to the formation of plaque within artery linings.
Behavior therapy employs strategies based on learning principles such, as reinforcement. It helps individuals overcome barriers related to dietary therapy compliance and increased physical activity.
Biliopancreatic diversion refers to a procedure used for weight loss. It combines a level of restriction, with intestinal malabsorption.
BMI Body Mass Index
BMI, which stands for Body Mass Index is a practical marker used to assess obesity. It is calculated by dividing body weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (wt./ht2). BMI is different from measurements of mass or percent body fat because it solely considers height and weight.
Body composition pertains to the ratio between body mass and body fat. Lean body mass includes functional elements within cells well as body water, muscles, bones, heart, liver, kidneys and so on. On the hand body fat consists of both fat required for normal physiological functioning (like nerve conduction) and storage fat that serves as the body’s reserves—this is typically what people aim to lose.
BRL 26830A is an atypical B adrenoreceptor agonist drug that has been observed to increase metabolic rate and reduce weight in rodents by decreasing their body lipid content. However, it should be noted that this drug has not been approved by the FDA for use, as a weight loss medication.
What is the 7 second weight loss secret?
This technique, referred to as the long breath diet, by Ryosuke is a method, for reducing belly fat. It involves assuming a posture and taking an inhale for three seconds followed by a forceful exhale lasting seven seconds. According to Ryosuke, when we breathe the oxygen reaches cells. Breaks them down into other components. This process results in increased fat burning as our bodies utilize oxygen. Previous research suggests that incorporating breathing exercises into our weight loss routines can be beneficial.
Carbohydrates are a type of nutrient that provides 4 calories, per gram. They can be categorized as simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates are commonly referred to as sugars while complex carbohydrates are known as starch and fiber specifically cellulose.
These organic compounds, formed through photosynthesis in plants, consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates play a role in generating heat. Can be further classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides.
Cardiovascular disease refers to any condition characterized by the dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels. This includes conditions such as atherosclerosis (heart disease which can lead to heart attacks) cerebrovascular disease (like stroke) and hypertension (high blood pressure).
Central fat distribution
The measurement of waist circumference serves as an indicator for body distribution. As waist circumference increases there is a likelihood of developing overt type 2 diabetes dyslipidemia (lipid levels) hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke and early mortality.
Among patterns of body distribution known as android type (commonly referred to as apple shaped) fat deposition occurs around the waist and upper abdominal area more frequently in men. It is believed that abdominal body fat is associated with the mobilization of fatty acids, then being derived from other fat deposits; however, this remains a point of debate.
If abdominal fat is indeed more active, than stores it could potentially explain (at least in part) the rise in blood lipid and glucose levels. These increases have been clearly associated with a risk of disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The gynoid type of body fat commonly referred to as pear shaped fat is typically observed in women. This type of fat tends to accumulate around the hips, thighs and buttocks. May serve as an energy reserve during pregnancy and lactation.
Surgical removal of the gallbladder along with any gallstones that may be present.
Inflammation of the gallbladder primarily caused by gallstones. Gallbladder disease is commonly found in women over the age of 40.
A waxy substance produced by the body which plays a role in hormone production bile acid synthesis vitamin D production; it is present throughout parts of the body including nervous system tissues, muscles, skin, liver, intestines and heart. Blood cholesterol circulates, within the bloodstream while dietary cholesterol can be found in animal-based foods.
A weight loss medication believed to work either by reducing acid secretion or suppressing hunger through blocking histamine H2 receptors. Please note that this drug has not been approved by the FDA.
Cognitive behavior therapy is a form of psychotherapy that focuses on the idea that distorted or dysfunctional thinking affects a person’s mood and behavior and is common, in issues. The main goal of this therapy is to identify these thoughts and replace them with rational and adaptive ones.
In behavior therapy there is a technique called rehearsal. For instance, in a weight loss program individuals are encouraged to imagine the situations that tempt them (like eating high fat food) describe their thoughts and feelings about those situations and then make self-statements (such as feeling good about choosing a low-calorie drink of high fat cheese).
After that they are advised to follow up with behaviors like walking from the buffet line to engage in conversation, with a friend. Lastly individuals are motivated to reward themselves for handling challenging situations through statements or material rewards or both. The purpose here is to practice one’s thoughts and behaviors before encountering situations and equip oneself with healthy adaptive responses.
Cognitive restructuring involves a method of identifying and replacing beliefs that promote fear, with realistic and functional ones.
Comorbidity refers to the occurrence of two or more diseases or conditions in an individual at the time.
Computed tomography (CT) scans are a technique used to visualize and measure fat. It provides images that differentiate fat from soft tissues. However due to factors such as radiation exposure, cost and limited availability CT scans are not widely used in studies.
Confounding refers to variables that can distort or exaggerate the observed effect of an intervention on outcomes.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a type of heart disease caused by the narrowing of arteries. These arteries supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. When these arteries become blocked by deposits of fat and cholesterol, they fail to deliver blood to the heart resulting in CHD.
Cue avoidance is a technique commonly employed in weight loss programs where individuals are encouraged to minimize their exposure to food cues by making changes, in their habits.
The main idea is to simplify things and resist the urge by limiting exposure, to food triggers. For instance, after a day at work and feeling exhausted it’s common for people to gravitate towards high fat foods if they’re readily accessible. However, if those high fat options are not easily, within reach it becomes easier to resist the temptation of consuming them.
It is a medication used to treat obesity that acts as an agonist, for serotonin. However, it has been withdrawn from FDA approval.
A condition affecting the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It is primarily caused by either a lack of insulin secretion from the pancreas beta cells or defects in insulin receptors.
Diastolic blood pressure
This refers to the pressure within arteries when the heart is at rest.
It is a prescription appetite suppressant used for managing obesity.
A neurotransmitter belonging to the catecholamine group primarily found in the basal ganglia of the system. Its key functions include influencing muscles peripheral inhibition and excitation, cardiac excitation and playing roles in metabolic, endocrine and central nervous system actions.
Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
DEXA is a technique used to estimate body fat percentage. However, it does have drawbacks such as subjecting individuals to whole body radiation. Requiring them to lie on a hard table for an extended period during scanning.
These are disorders related to lipoprotein metabolism classified into types, like hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol levels) hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) combined hyperlipidemia (elevated lipid levels overall) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Dyslipidemias can be both secondary conditions.
Both having levels of LDL cholesterol and low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis at an age.
The degree to which a specific intervention, procedure, regimen or service yields outcomes under circumstances. Ideally determining effectiveness is based on the findings of a control trial.
Balance of energy
Energy refers to the ability of a body or physical system to perform work. Energy balance occurs when the total energy intake matches the energy requirements.
A condition in which the total energy intake falls short of the energy needs.
A drug that mimics system activity and induces thermogenesis in both laboratory animals and humans. Studies, on animals indicate that it may decrease content and consequently body weight through mechanisms likely involving increased expenditure and decreased food consumption.
A body mass index ≥ 40.
A drug belonging to the serotonin reuptake inhibitor class used for weight loss in patients.
A drug that acts as an agonist for receptors and was previously used for treating obesity. However, its approval by FDA has been revoked.
A protein present in plasma that converts into fibrin with the help of thrombin and calcium ions. Fibrin is responsible for forming blood clots.
An antidepressant medication utilized to facilitate weight loss by inhibition of serotonin reuptake, into presynaptic neurons.
Serotonin plays a role, in the brain by affecting our appetite and feelings of fullness leading to a decrease in carbohydrate intake and subsequent weight loss.
The Framingham Heart Study, which started in 1948 aimed to understand how various factors such as genetics, environment and behavior influence the development of disease. The data collected from the Framingham study indicate that being overweight and having fat around the waist are linked to levels of risk factors like cholesterol, blood pressure, blood glucose and uric acid.
These factors also contribute to an increased likelihood of developing disease and higher mortality rates, from all causes combined.
Gallstones are formed when certain substances, in the gallbladder like bile salts and cholesterol become highly concentrated of being reabsorbed. This concentration can lead to pain as the stones move into the bile duct.
Risk factors for developing cholesterol gallstones include being female, weight gain or being overweight consuming a high energy diet, certain ethnic backgrounds like Pima Indians and Scandinavians using medications such as clofibrate, estrogens and bile acid sequestrants and having diseases. It’s worth noting that gallstones can sometimes develop during weight reduction diets, which may increase the risk of both gallstones and acute gallbladder disease.
Gastric banding is a procedure performed to limit the amount of food that the stomach can hold by closing off a section of it. This is achieved by placing a band around the part of the stomach creating a small pouch and a narrow passage into the larger remaining portion. The small outlet causes food to empty from the pouch at a rate. Induces feelings of fullness.
Intragastric balloons are used as part of obesity treatment where they are inserted into the stomach to float freely.
Gastric bypass is a procedure that involves two components; creating smaller stomach pouches to restrict food intake and constructing bypasses around sections of both the duodenum (first part of small intestine) and other segments of it. The purpose, behind this procedure is twofold; limiting food absorption while also reducing calorie intake.
Patients typically experience a weight loss of around two thirds of their weight within a span of two years. One common surgical procedure used for this purpose is exclusion, which is also referred to as partitioning or Roux en Y bypass.
During this procedure a small stomach pouch is created either by stapling or vertical banding restricting the amount of food that can be consumed. Additionally, a Y shaped section of the intestine is attached to the pouch allowing food to bypass both the duodenum and the initial part of the jejunum.
Another similar procedure known as gastroplasty restricts food intake by creating a pouch at the portion of the stomach where food enters from the esophagus. Initially this pouch can hold 1 ounce of food. Expands over time to accommodate 2 3 ounces. The lower outlet of this pouch usually has a diameter to 1/4 inch causing delayed emptying and inducing a sense of fullness after meals.
The term “genotype” refers to an individual’s makeup. It encompasses all factors that contribute to an organism’s constitution. In terms it represents a group of organisms sharing hereditary characteristics.
Glucose tolerance refers to the ability of a liver to absorb and store amounts of glucose as well, as the efficiency of intestinal glucose absorption. The glucose tolerance test is a metabolic assessment that measures the body’s response to carbohydrates by examining insulin levels and evaluating how well the liver absorbs glucose.
This test involves consuming 100 grams of glucose on a stomach with blood sugar levels expected to return to normal within 2 to 2½ hours after ingestion.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) is one component of hemoglobin A. When glucose and related sugars bind to hemoglobin A glycosylated hemoglobin is. Its concentration reflects the blood glucose level over several weeks. HbA1C levels are used as a long-term indicator of plasma glucose control (normal range is 4 to 6 percent).
In managed cases of diabetes mellitus, the concentration of hemoglobin A falls within the normal range. However, in cases it may be three to four times higher than normal. Generally, patients with HbA1C levels at or below 7 percent have complications compared to those with levels, above 9 percent.
Hemorrhagic stroke refers to a condition characterized by bleeding within brain tissue.
Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when blood vessels in an area of the brain that has been damaged or deprived of blood supply rupture leading to a transformation, from a “stroke to a one. Ischemia refers to oxygenation of tissues due to reduced blood flow while infarction refers to tissue death caused by ischemia. The bleeding irritates the brain tissues resulting in swelling known as edema. Additionally, blood. Forms a mass called a hematoma, which puts pressure on the brain tissue and displaces it.
Heritability is the measure of how much variation in a trait can be attributed to factors inherited from parents rather than environmental influences.
High density lipoproteins (HDL) are substances that contain an amount of cholesterol and transport it away from body cells and tissues to be eliminated by the liver. Low levels of HDL increase the risk of heart disease higher HDL levels are considered better. Normally HDL makes up 20 30% of cholesterol and higher HDL levels are inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease.
Hirsutism refers to the presence of body and facial hair in women. It can occur naturally as an expression of characteristics. May develop in children or adults due, to hormonal imbalances or disorders.
Apert’s hirsutism occurs due, to a virilizing disorder originating from the glands. Constitutional hirsutism refers to moderate hair growth in individuals who have endocrine and reproductive functions. It is often a form of hirsutism that can also be seen as an ethnic characteristic.
Idiopathic hirsutism on the hand is a condition of origin in women, who may experience menstrual irregularities and infertility. Some experts believe that hirsutism may be caused by secretion of androgens from the glands.
Hypercholesterolemia, commonly known as blood cholesterol levels is predominantly found in animal tissues in bile and gallstones. The cholesterol balance refers to the relationship between intake, endogenous production, utilization, sequestration or elimination of cholesterol from the body. A positive balance indicates cholesterol accumulation while a negative balance suggests its decline.
In 1993 the NHLBI National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults issued updated recommendations for monitoring and managing blood cholesterol levels. According to these guidelines it was recommended that all adults undergo measurements for cholesterol levels well, as subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol starting at age 20 with subsequent screenings based on individual needs.
Among patients, with the risk of coronary heart disease (total cholesterol <200 mg/dL and HDL >35 mg/dL) it is recommended by the NCEP to undergo rescreening at least once every 5 years or during a physical examination.
High blood pressure, characterized by elevated diastolic levels is defined as having a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher or being on hypertensive medication.
The causes can range from issues to conditions, essential hypertension, Goldblatt’s syndrome, idiopathic cases, malignant PATE, portal hypertension, postpartum related hypertension, primary hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, renal related causes or renovascular problems.
An excess presence of triglycerides in the bloodstream is an inherited condition with hyperlipoproteinemia type IV as its phenotype. As per the National Cholesterol Education Programs guidelines high triglyceride levels are considered to be between 400 and 1,000, mg/dL.
The rate at which a specific event occurs referring to the number of cases of a disease during a given period.
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type I diabetes)
A condition characterized by blood glucose levels due, to issues with insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The development of type I diabetes involves factors such as responses, genetics and environmental influences.
A situation where a portion of the brain is deprived of blood supply. It is also known as “plug type” strokes. Blocked arteries lead to the deprivation of functions like sight, speech, sensation and movement in areas of the brain. Ischemic stroke is the type of stroke and accounts for about 80 percent of all cases.
Often it occurs when a blood clot called a thrombus obstructs blood flow in the arteries that supply blood to the brain usually affecting the artery in the neck—the primary vessel responsible for carrying blood to the brain. When this artery becomes blocked it significantly increases the risk of experiencing a stroke.
Refer, to gastroplasty.
J shaped relationship
Describes how body weight relates to mortality rates.
These are protein coated packages that transport fat and cholesterol throughout the bloodstream.
There are four categories; density, low density, very low density and chylomicrons.
A general anatomical term that refers to a location, in the body or the position of a gene on a chromosome.
Also known as a “cohort study” or “prospective study”; it is a method used in epidemiology to identify subsets of a defined population who have been are currently or will be exposed (or not exposed) to factors that may influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease or outcome. The key aspect of this type of study is observing groups of individuals over a period and comparing the incidence rates between groups with different levels of exposure.
Low Calorie Diet
Low calorie diet (LCD)
A dietary approach that involves restricting caloric intake to 800 to 1,500 calories per day (around 12 to 15 calories per kilogram of body weight).
Low density lipoprotein (LDL)
This lipoprotein carries most of the cholesterol in the bloodstream. LDL transports cholesterol to tissues in the body, including arteries. Having elevated levels of LDL increases the risk, for heart disease.
LDL cholesterol typically makes up 60 to 70 percent of the cholesterol in the bloodstream and both LDL and total serum cholesterol levels are directly linked to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
A fat diet refers to an eating plan where no more than 30 percent of the days total calorie intake comes from fat.
Macronutrients are the sources of energy in our diet; protein, fat and carbohydrates.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes radio frequency waves to visualize and measure content. MRI provides high quality images that allow differentiation between tissue (fat) and non-lipid structures. It offers information as CT scans, including measurements of overall body subcutaneous fat and various components of visceral adipose tissue.
One advantage of MRI is its safety for children, adults and pregnant women due to its lack of ionizing radiation. However limited access to MRI equipment, cost and lengthy scan times currently restricts its use.
Menopause is the process when menstruation ceases in females at, around 50 years old.
Meta analysis is a method that combines findings from studies to generate more comprehensive insights.
Pooling the results from a collection of randomized controlled trials is a practice when none of the trials alone possess enough statistical power to demonstrate significance.
Mianserin, an antidepressant is sometimes prescribed in the pharmacotherapy of bulimia nervosa.
The midaxillary line refers to a line that runs between the anterior and posterior axillary (armpit) folds.
Monounsaturated fat, primarily found in plant-based foods, like olive and canola oils falls under the category of fats.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by necrosis of the myocardium due to blood supply in a specific area. This condition typically arises from artery atherosclerosis. Often involves coronary thrombosis as well.
NHANES stands for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. It is conducted every 10 years by the National Center for Health Statistics to gather information about habits and overall health among U.S. Residents.
Neural tube defects encompass issues related to development affecting the spinal cord, spine, brain and skull. Examples include spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele. Neural tube defects generally occur during pregnancy (around 4 to 6 weeks) often before a woman realizes she is pregnant. These conditions can result in difficulties, with walking and problems related to bladder and bowel control.
The death of nerve cells leading to a decline, in function.
Obesity refers to the condition of having an amount of body fat. It is determined by a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. When a person’s body fat exceeds 30 percent for women or 25 percent, for men they are generally classified as obese. In this document obesity is defined as having a BMI than 30.
An observational study is a type of research that does not involve any form of intervention, whether experimental or otherwise. Instead, it allows nature to take its course and examines how changes in one relate to changes in characteristics.
Analytical epidemiological methods such as case control and cohort study designs are considered observational because the investigator observes and records results without intervening.
Orlistat is a weight loss medication that works by inhibiting lipase an enzyme found in the bowel that aids in lipid absorption by the body. By blocking this enzyme Orlistat reduces the amount of fat absorbed by 30 percent. It is commonly referred to as a ” blocker.” However, it’s worth noting that Orlistat can lead to leakage and fecal incontinence due, to more oily fat being excreted through the bowel.
Orlistat might not be appropriate, for individuals with bowel conditions like bowel syndrome or Crohn’s disease.
This degenerative joint disease, which primarily affects individuals is characterized by the degeneration of the cartilage in joints, bone hypertrophy at the edges and changes in the membrane. It often causes pain and stiffness.
Refers to having a body weight without having excessive body fat; typically defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2.
Denotes other areas of the body apart from the abdominal region, such as the gluteal femoral area.
Pharmacotherapy involves using medications that suppress appetite to manage obesity by reducing hunger or increasing feelings of fullness. These medications work by affecting brain chemicals like serotonin or catecholamine that influence mood and appetite.
The biochemical and physiological characteristics of an individual are determined by both their genetic makeup and their environment in a broad sense.
A derivative related to amphetamine that acts on receptors; it is used as an appetite suppressant. Phentermine is usually taken orally in form along with an ion exchange resin to ensure action over time.
Polyunsaturated fats are most abundant in plant derived foods such, as safflower, sunflower, corn and soybean oils.
After a meal the level of glucose, in the blood is tested to determine how well the body tolerates glucose. This test is called postprandial plasma blood glucose or glucose tolerance test.
Prevalence refers to the number of occurrences or instances of a disease or condition within a population at a given time. When we talk about prevalence, we are referring to a point in time not a rate.
A prospective study is a study where a group of individuals (a cohort) who are initially free from a disease and have varying levels of exposure, to potential risk factors are followed over a certain period of time. The aim is to determine the incidence rates of the disease in both exposed and unexposed groups.
Proteins are compounds made up of acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes other atoms. These amino acids are linked together in arrangements.
Randomization, also known as allocation refers to the process of assigning individuals to groups, such, as experimental and control groups by chance. The main purpose of allocation is to ensure that the control and experimental groups are similar at the beginning of a study minimizing any biases or personal judgments from the investigator.
A randomized clinical trial (RCT) is an experiment where subjects from a population are randomly assigned to either a study group or a control group. This allows researchers to assess the effectiveness of a prevention or therapeutic product, procedure or intervention by comparing rates of disease occurrence, recovery or other relevant outcomes between the two groups.
RCTs are widely regarded as the rigorous method for hypothesis testing in epidemiology.
When it comes to genetics a recessive gene is one that only shows its effects when an individual carries two copies of it (.
Refractory obesity refers to obesity that does not respond well to treatment despite attempts at intervention.
Relative risk is a measure used in epidemiology that compares the incidence rate of a disease among individuals exposed to a risk factor with the incidence rate, among individuals who are not exposed. It can also be referred to as risk ratio or cumulative incidence ratio.
The term relative risk is sometimes used interchangeably with odds ratio. This is because the odds ratio and relative risk become similar when the disease is rare (affecting less than 5 percent of the population) and there is a number of subjects.
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) accounts for 65 to 75 percent of energy expenditure and represents the minimum energy required to sustain all physiological cell functions when in a resting state. The main factor influencing RMR is body mass (LBM). In terms obese individuals have a RMR compared to lean individuals. However, when adjusted for LBM and per unit surface area their RMR becomes comparable. When expressed per kilogram of body weight their RMR tends to be lower. Due to their mass obese people require energy for any given activity but they generally have a tendency to be less physically active compared to lean individuals.
Risk refers to the likelihood or probability of an event occurring. It’s a technical term that encompasses various measures indicating the probability of an unfavorable outcome, in general.
Roux en Y bypass refers to exclusion. Is one of the most commonly performed gastric bypass procedures.
Saturated fat is a type of fat that is predominantly found in animal-based foods, like fatty cuts of meat poultry with the skin, milk dairy products, lard and certain vegetable oils such as coconut, palm kernel and palm oils.
Consuming fat has been linked to increased blood cholesterol levels. For a Step I Diet it is recommended to limit fat intake to no than 8 to 10 percent of total calories. In the case of a Step II Diet, it is advised to consume than 7 percent of daily calories from saturated fat.
Secular trends refer to long term patterns or changes observed within a community or country over a period.
Serotonin is a vasoconstrictor belonging to the class of monoamine compounds. It can be found in organisms ranging from coelenterates to vertebrates, bacteria and many plants. In humans specifically serotonin is synthesized either in the chromaffin cells or in peripheral neurons.
It exists in concentrations within body tissues including the intestinal mucosa, pineal body and central nervous system. Serotonin is produced enzymatically through hydroxylation and decarboxylation processes from tryptophan. This compound possesses properties such as inhibiting gastric secretion stimulating smooth muscle activity acting as a central neurotransmitter and serving as a precursor, for melatonin production.
A medication utilized for managing obesity aids in reducing food intake and is prescribed for weight loss. Maintaining weight loss when combined with a reduced calorie diet. It operates by suppressing the appetite through inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and serotonin. Some potential side effects include mouth, headaches, constipation, difficulty sleeping and a slight elevation, in blood pressure. In patients it may lead to an increase in blood pressure.
A breathing disorder that can be life threatening characterized by repeated interruptions in breathing during sleep due to either blockage or lack of effort.
A technique employed in behavior therapy where individuals are encouraged that they possess the ability to control their weight but attending group sessions can reinforce their abilities. The group members are encouraged to listen and offer advice to self-help groups that operate based on social support.
The measurement of the created opening between two body structures.
A loss of urine that occurs concurrently with an increase in abdominal pressure, such as, during laughter sneezing, coughing or physical activity.
Stress management refers to a collection of techniques aimed at helping individuals effectively navigate situations leading to improved well-being enhanced behavioral skills and a greater sense of control. These techniques may involve relaxation exercises, assertiveness training, cognitive restructuring, time management strategies and seeking support. Stress management can be offered on a basis or, in group settings.
A stroke occurs when there is a loss of brain function due to a disruption in blood flow. This disruption can be caused by either a clot (thrombosis) or the rupture (hemorrhage) of a blood vessel in the brain.
The submaximal heart rate test is utilized to assess the level of activity for an individual. By increasing the workload until signs such as angina pain become apparent this test allows for adjustment and provides a reliable quantitative measure of functional impairment if heart disease is present.
Surgical procedures include methods such, as jejuno ileostomy, gastroplasty, gastric bypass, gastric partitioning, gastric exclusion, Roux en Y bypass and gastric bubble.
Systolic blood pressure refers to the pressure exerted on arteries when the heart contracts and blood starts flowing.
Triglycerides are fats that travel in the bloodstream and are mainly stored in the body’s tissues for energy. They come primarily from fats.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually often without symptoms of metabolic disruption. Does not require external insulin. It commonly occurs between the ages of 50 and 60 with obesity being a factor along, with genetic influences.
Validity refers to how the conclusions drawn from study results can be justified when considering factors such as the study methods, representativeness of the sample and characteristics of the population it represents. It involves determining if findings can be reasonably generalized beyond the study participants.
Vertical banded gastroplasty
Vertical banded gastroplasty is a procedure used to treat obesity. It involves creating a pouch within the stomach that connects to an opening leading into both the lower part of the stomach and duodenum.
Very low-calorie diet (VLCD)
Under supervision and monitoring low calorie diets (VLCDs) restrict severely obese individuals to consuming 800 calories or fewer per day. These diets aim to promote weight loss in a controlled manner.
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipid that circulates in our bloodstream. It plays a role, in transporting triglycerides throughout our body for functions.
Lipoprotein particles originating from the liver are responsible, for carrying cholesterol and lipids. VLDLs, which make up 10 to 15 percent of serum cholesterol well as most triglycerides in the fasting serum serve as precursors to LDL. Some forms of VLDL, VLDL remnants have been found to have a role in causing atherosclerosis.
Visceral fat refers to one of the three compartments of fat. The other two compartments are retroperitoneal and subcutaneous.
VO2 max is a term used to describe the capacity of oxygen consumption by the body during physical exertion. It serves as an indicator for cardiorespiratory fitness.
When measuring waist circumference, a bony landmark is. Marked. The subject stands while a technician positioned on their side palpates the hip bone to locate the right ileum. A horizontal mark is then drawn above the lateral border of the right ileum and intersected with a vertical mark, on the midaxillary line.
To measure waist circumference accurately a measuring tape is placed around the trunk at this level ensuring it remains level horizontally on all sides without compressing the skin or underlying subcutaneous tissues.
The measurement is recorded in centimeters with accuracy, up to the millimeter.
Waist hip ratio (WHR)
The WHR is a measure of the relationship between a person’s waist circumference and hip circumference. It examines how these two measurements differ. People tend to store body fat in two ways often referred to as “apple” and “pear” shapes, where fat accumulates either around the waist (apple) or on the hips (pear).
Having weight around the waist poses health risks compared to having it around the hips or thighs. However overall obesity poses risks than body fat distribution or WHR. A WHR of ≥ 1.0 indicates a zone with increased risks of heart disease and other overweight related conditions. For men a ratio of.90 or less is considered safe while, for women it is.80 or less.
Yohimbine Yohimbine is an alkaloid known for its blocking properties. It has been used in treating arteriosclerosis and angina pectoris. In the past it was also utilized as an mydriatic agent as well as for its alleged aphrodisiac effects.
What are the 3 P’s of weight loss?
Everyone is unique and that’s pretty obvious, right? I mean literally everyone is different. So, it only makes sense that each person’s transformation should also be unique. While it is true that there are processes that govern fat loss and muscle gain which apply to most people there are various factors, like genetics, environment, metabolic state, and more that come into play and make a significant difference.
This variation highlights the importance of personalizing your body transformation plan to make it as effective as possible. The key aspect of such a plan is nutrition. Your nutrition plan can be tailored specifically to factors like your body size, composition, body type, age, gender, and activity level.
By considering these factors you can determine your base metabolic rate accurately. Then figure out the number of calories you need to consume in order to achieve your weight loss or weight gain goals.
Setting a calorie target serves as a starting point, for your body transformation plan. However, it’s important to remember that this target may change over time as you progress on your journey.
Body transformation is more complex than the equation of calories consumed versus calories burned. Have you ever wondered why you reach plateaus during your weight loss or weight gain journeys? It’s because your body adjusts to the amount of energy (calories) it receives!
For instance, let’s say you are aiming to lose weight. You have done your research and determined that you burn around 2,500 calories per day. So, you decide to reduce your calorie intake to 2,200 calories, and voila you start losing weight. However, after weeks of following this diet plan your weight loss comes to a halt.
The reason behind this is that your body has adapted to the reduced energy supply by lowering its metabolism. This means that it starts burning calories. It might seem frustrating at first. It’s actually a response from our bodies during periods when food is scarce or when they perceive “lean times.” The goal here is energy conservation.
But don’t worry; all hope is not lost! One effective way to overcome these plateaus is, by increasing or decreasing your caloric intake.
In terms of transforming your body, it is important to approach it in phases or what some people call periodization. This means cycling, between aspects of nutrition and training to achieve results.
When it comes to body transformations these phases involve alternating between periods of increasing and decreasing calorie intake.
Change is crucial for progress. This phased approach follows a pattern like other natural processes.
During the periods of calorie surplus, you’ll build muscle mass. Maintain a high metabolism, which makes burning fat easier. On the other hand, during periods of calorie deficit, you’ll shed body fat and keep your body responsive to hormones like insulin.
The duration of each phase may vary depending on your condition and ultimate goal. However, it is generally recommended to stick with any one phase for 8 weeks in order to see the benefits. I personally find phases longer, than 4-5 months tend to be counterproductive.
Loma Linda University